Judges 19-21: a Liturgical Cycle Starting from the Fall of the Watchers

1. ch. 19 Passover: see Lee 2017, parallel with Sodom; night, died on the threshold, Judges 17:29 (unbroken bones), Abraham's knife / Levite's blade.

Sodom also at Passover: Rev 11:8 (Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified: witness of Sodom at Passover).

Shelamim! cf. bPesahim 60a-b: transformation of the Passover sacrifice into Shelamim.
Levit was probably going to Bethel (17:19; cf. Edenburg 2018, p. 291).

Bethlehem: 5 days of preparation, since Nisan 10. it seems that the nychtemeron starts at the down.
Jerusalem (Bethel) vs Gibeah (also a shrine, cf. Edenburg). Mitzpah is secular only (cf. Edenburg).

2. Therefore: 3 battles falling on Pentecost (even if Pinehas is a later addition). Why Pentecost (and not Passover of the next year): 1. the main motive here is the renovation of the Covenant; 2. four-month interval before the next feast(s) which is (are) twofold (10 and 15.VII).

3rd battle falled on Pentecost. Probably, one day of fasting (Sabbath).
Chronology: Thu: 1st battle, Fri: 2nd battle, Saturday (the most important sacrifice), 3rd battle, Sunday.
3.5-day of fasting with the victory after the last (fourth) night?

Smoke on Gibeah: a parallel with Sodom but on the Pentecost?

3. Final episodes four months later (thus, in Tishri): 10 (reconciliation with the rest of Benjamin and judgement on Jabesh Gilead) and 15 Tishri (Shiloh? perhaps still Bethel or a competence with Shiloh?): Sukkot (agricultural rituals outside the walls of the city, vines).

Cf. independent source: Flavius Josephus mentions some fast (cf. 10.VII).

4. Beginning of the whole story and the meaning of Jud 19:2 (the modern consensus is false, cf. Edenburg, but cf. Lagrange1903: 296 following Moore, which I take mutatis mutandis: וַתִּזְנֶה עָלָיו as a Rabbinic correction of
ותנאף, while ὠργίσθη αὐτῷ going back to the misspelling ותאנף). The topic of WATCHERS!

Calendar: 10.I the first day in Bethlehem, the one-day travel on 9.I = the first day after the four months of separation (19:2-3). Thus, the four-month period ended on 8.I and, therefore, started on 8.IX (the day of the separation itself).

8.IX: cf. cult of Michael, esp. in Coptic, and 8.IX in the Liturgy of the 49th Sabbath: Watchers and Michael.
cf. 8.IX in the Liturgy of the 49th Sabbath, where it is the 7th Sabbath after the Sabbath of Sukkot. Anyway, the story in Jug 19-21 covers the entire liturgical year, from Sukkot to Sukkot. cf.
LAB 45:6 "adversary" (Satan).

5. Wathers' motives (1 En 6-9, the part of 1En that is a quotation from an earlier source, could be earlier than 3rd cent.; cf. Yoshiko Reed 2006; thus, roughly contemporaneous to Judges (late 6th or 5th cent.)).

1 En 6:3-4 oath to take wives: cf. the oath of the Israel not to give wives to Benjamin.
1 En 7:15 anthropophagy: cf. Levit's concubine as Shelamim.
1 En 9:1, 9 bloodshedding: cf. battles.

Judges: Benjamenites took their wives in the manner symmetrical to (correcting?) the act of the Watchers.

6. Conclusion: Judges 19-21 was a self-standing work related to the story of the Fall of the Watchers (perhaps in its pre-Enochic form). The sin of Levite's concubine/wife was adultery with Watchers or something of this kind, equally inacceptable for the editor of the Judges.

The Acta fabulosa of Peter (CANT 198): a Syrian “Colonial Discourse” about Rome

This unique piece where Peter appears in Rome only after other Christian bishops (notice plural!) is known since 1896 but became properly published only as a result of cooperation between Enrica Follieri (1956) and Mario Capaldo (2002). Already Follieri attributed it to South Syrian monasticism and supposed that it was written in an Oriental language. The present Greek and Slavonic recensions go back to a lost Greek archetype being far remoted from it and each other. My analysis resulted in the following. Sitz im Leben: Syrian monasticism of Hauran and Lebanon, second half of the seventh century (Umayyad Caliphate), the time of active Syrian presence in Italia and Rome (when even five Popes were Syrians). Original language: Syriac (one of its hallmarks is Peter’s age of about 160 years, which contradicts to the internal chronology of the account: a confusion in Serto between qof “100” and waw “and”). Original liturgical calendar: a liturgical cycle with Peter’s commemoration on the second Pentecost (as in some Syrian traditions, not on June 29), the whole plot developing within 50 days starting on the first Pentecost. The lost indications of duration for some time intervals are to be recovered as the normal time required for travel (maritime route from Lebanon to Rhegium: 20 days; maritime route from Rhegium to Puteoli: 3.5 4 days; from Puteoli to Rome on foot, 200 km: 10 days). The topography of Rome is exact; are mentioned: the ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, piscina in Capitolio, Colosseum, the Old St Peter’s basilica. Target audience: monastic “metropolia” in the East. Message: success in Syrian “colonisation” of Rome.

Liturgical Symbolism and Calendar in the Testament of Job.

The Testament of Job is not only saturated with hymnography, but it contains a detailed calculation of days for the events preceding Job’s death. This is a certain mark of a liturgical calendar. The day of Job’s death is marked with appearance of the Merkabah, thus pointing to the well-known Second Temple-period feast on the Summer Solstice, normally about seven days before the even greater feast of the second Pentecost (New Wine); the cosmological concept of Sun's chariot was thus understood as the divine Merkabah. The liturgical cycle has parallels elsewhere, and it could be reconstructed as following (in a 364DY calendar whose exact structure remains unknown):
Pentecost (Sunday, month III, unknown day): Job’s wife buys from (unrecognised) Satan three loaves of bread sufficient for living three days; she pays with cutting her hair thus referring to a personal “Nazirite” covenant with Satan instead of the Covenant of Moses with God; the three days are the Sunday of Pentecost and the following Monday and Tuesday;
Wednesday: arrival of Job’s friends; they remain silent for seven days till Tuesday inclusively;
Wednesday: Job’s friends start another seven days discussing Job’s situation between themselves;
from Wednesday to Friday: three days of incensing to weaken the smell from Job and start a conversation with him;
Sabbath, the first day of conversation and the middle of the entire liturgical cycle: revelation to Job’s wife and her death;
remaining conversation days; the total of these days (including the first, Saturday) is corrupted in the Greek manuscripts (7 or 27) but is authentic in the Slavonic: twenty,—till Thursday;
three days of Job’s final illness: from Friday to Sunday;
Sunday: ascension of Job’s soul with the Merkabah, the Summer Solstice feast;
this 43-day schedule implies one mourning week before the next feast of New Wine.

Esther and Kenaz (LAB 25-26): Two Stories about Lots, their Passover Calendar...

...and the Synoptic Passover Narrative.

The story of Kenaz in LAB 25-26 provides a legend that, like Esth, includes a story about lots and a detailed chronology of a war that must be interpreted as a Passover calendar. The Passover calendar is the same as in Esth. It starts on 14.I when the most solemn feast of Passover becomes the day of a catastrophe and continues with four days of struggle with the salvation occurring in the night of the fourth. Thus, the Passover night of salvation turns out to be postponed for four days, and the entire Passover celebration occupies five days instead of one and includes the 3.5-day fast within the festal days. In my earlier study (Lourié 2002/2008) I supposed (elaborating on Jaubert’s hypothesis) that such calendar was implied in the Synoptic Passion Week, where the Passover fell on Tuesday 14.I (according to a 364-DY calendar similar to but distinct from that of the Jubilees) but ended only on Saturday, with the night of salvation being that of Saturday (i.e., given the beginning of the nichtemeron at the down, the night from Saturday to Sunday). According to my hypothesis, this calendar included the “broken Nisan”, where Tuesday 14.I was followed with four days “of interval” from Wednesday to Saturday, which were out of counting of the days of the month, while 15.I fell only on Sunday. The four days “of interval” were added together at one point of the year instead of adding them one per one at the end of each quarter. Esth 8:9 LXX/“Slavonic” corroborates the idea of “broken Nisan”: the scribes were called on 23.I when the feasts are over, namely, the eight-day feast of Unleavened Bread (15-22.I) and the feast of Passover falling on 14.I. This implies, for the Esther account, the duration of 14.I for five days.