форматирование таблицы сохранить не удается,т.к. слишком большой объем.
17 Modalities and Cinque’s functional projections
Taking in mind the table of narrative modalities, we are in position to compare it with the “universal hierarchy of functional projections” constructed by Cinque (1999).
Cinque’s idea of hierarchy may be productive for the narratological studies as well, but now will be taken aside. We will try to propose a simplified logical interpretation of the Cinque table as if it is a non-ordered set.
The table is the following (Cinque 1999, 130):
Functional head Default Marked
Moodspeech act declarative - declarative
Moodevaluatlve - [ - fortunate] - fortunate
Moodevidentlal direct evidence - direct evidence
Modepistemlc commitment - commitment
T(Past) R1, S R1, S
T(Future) R1,R2 R1, R2
Moodlrrealis realis irrealis
•Modaleth necess - [ - necessary] - necessary
Modaleth possib - [ - possible] - possible
Modvolition - [ - volition] - volition
Modobligation - [ - obligation] - obligation
Modabilityv/permlss - [ - ability/permission] - ability /permission
ASPhapitiual - [ + habitual] + habitual
Asprepetitive(I) - [ + repetitive] + repetitive
ASPfrequentative(I) - [ + frequentative] + frequentative
Aspceleratlve(I) - [ + celerative] + celerative
T(Anterior) E, R2 E, R2
ASPtermmative - [ + terminative] + terminative
ASPcontinuative - [ + continuative] + continuative
AsPperfect imperfect perfect
ASPretrospective - [ + retrospective] + retrospective
ASPproximative - [ + proximative} + proximative
Aspdurative - [ + durative] + durative
ASPprogressive generic progressive
ASPprospective - [ + prospective] + prospective
ASPcompletiveSg - [ + completive] + completive
ASPcompletivePl - [ + completive] + completive
Voice active passive
Aspceperatlve(II) - [ + celerative] + celerative
Asprepetluve(II) - [ + repetitive] + repetitive
Aspfrequentativ(II) - [ + frequentative] + frequentative
Aspcomp|etive(II) - [ + completive] + completive
Some parallels with the narrative modalities are striking. Sometime, Cinque himself calls his “functional projections” modalities in a very philosophical sense of word. His usage of the modal logics is limited to (von Wright 1951) and (Rescher 1968) and that of the generalized quantifiers to the intuitions of (Lewis 1976), but this is enough to recognize alethic, deontic, and epistemic modalities.
Cinque himself is quite aware of the logical nature of his enterprise, while he puts the word “logic” when applied to his table in commas (Cinque 1999, 129). It is logic, nevertheless, while often inexplicit. And, more precisely, a modal logic.
Just now, knowing that the time is also a modal category, we can suppose that the modal nature of the list of functional heads will turn out to be much deeper than it is explicated so far.