Bishop Gregory (hgr) wrote,
Bishop Gregory

пятидесятницу празднуим

считается, что предписания об отсчете дней 50цы в книге Левит даны таким образом, что соблюсти их невозможно: либо мы идем путем раввинистического иудаизма, нарушая одну их половину, либо путем Кумрана и т.п., нарушая другую. но все же можно пойти таким путем, при котором выполняются все без исключения требования кн. Левит. для этого нужно начинать год (1 нисана) в воскресенье, а не в среду (когда были сотворены светила, и когда начинаются все нормальные календари).
разбор этого -- во фрагменте моей работы о 2 Енохе, где, я думаю, одна из модификаций такого календаря, но довольно экзотическая. следы этого календаря есть в христианской литературе и, возможно, в Послании к Евреям. а сегодня я сообразил, что того же типа календарь в "Иосифе и Асенеф", причем, более классический, нежели 2 Ен.: там д.б. календарь кн. Юбилеев, но с началом в воскресенье.
.1.2. The Sunday 364-day calendar

The day of the Passover is always 14.I (Lev 23:5). It is followed by the seven-day feast of Unleavened Bread, 15–21.I (Lev 23:6-8). The counting of the seven weeks of the Pentecost must be started “from the day after the Sabbath (מִמָּחֳרַ֣ת הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת), from the day on which you bring the sheaf of the elevation offering” (Lev 23:15 NRSV). The latter verse turned out to be hard for the creators of Jewish calendars.
In the rabbinic Judaism, the mention of Sabbath was ignored in its literal sense (in both Lev 23:15 and Lev 23:11 “He shall raise the sheaf… on the day after the Sabbath”). Thus, the day of raising of the sheaf is 15.I, the first day of counting of the seven weeks is 16.I, and the Day of Shavuoth (Pentecost) is 6.III (the 1st month having 30 and the 2nd month having 29 days). Of course, the rule that the Day of Pentecost must fall on Sunday (Lev 23:16: “the day after the seventh Sabbath”) is also ignored in its literal sense.
In the 364-day calendars of 1 Enoch and Jubilees, as Jaubert (1957) pointed out, the situation is quite different. All the rules of Lev 23 regarding the Sabbath are kept in their literal sense. In these calendars, 14.I is Tuesday. Thus, the final day of Unleavened Bread, 21.I, is Tuesday as well. However, the first day of counting of the seven weeks must be the Sunday after the feast of Unleavened Bread. The first Sunday after 21.I is 26.I. Thus, the Day of Pentecost is Sunday 15.III (both 1st and 2nd months having 30 days). However, these calendars presuppose breaking, in its literal sense, of the commandment in the second part of the verse Lev 23:15 “…from the day on which you bring the sheaf of the elevation offering.” The same situation is in other 364-day calendars, still unknown to Jaubert (e.g., that of the Temple Scroll).
All these calendars, presupposing that the Day of Passover 14.I is Tuesday, presuppose that the beginning of calendar, 1.I, is Wednesday, the day when the luminaries were created. However, we know another tradition where the 364-day calendar starts on the day of creation of the world, Sunday. So far, it was known only from the calendar discussions among the Christians who were following different traditions of 364-day calendars (van Esbroeck 1990–1991).
Supposing that 1.I is Sunday, we have 14.I on Saturday, that is, the Passover falling on Sabbath. It is very interesting, e.g., because the tradition of the Passover on Sabbath is reflected in the Epistle to the Hebrews (Lourié 2008b).
If the Day of Passover 14.I is Sabbath, the days of the Unleavened Bread festival are from 15.I to 21.I, from Sunday to Saturday. The day of raising of the sheaf is the Sunday immediately after the end of the festival of Unleavened Bread, 22.I, which is in perfect correspondence with Lev 23:11. The same day is the beginning of counting of the seven weeks, again, in the perfect correspondence with the commandment of Leviticus (23:15): to start on the Sunday but on the day of raising of the sheaf.
Thus, as Steven Fraade pointed out, the Sunday 364-day calendar is the only calendar where all the commandments regarding to counting of the seven weeks of the Shavuoth are kept in their literal sense.

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